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The new CS_SESSION package and DB_NOTIFICATIONS view in the Autonomous Database

In Autonomous, DBA, Oracle database on January 20, 2022 at 09:19

Two new objects have been recently introduced in the Oracle Autonomous Database on Shared Exadata Infrastructure.

1. The first one is the CS_SESSION package.

When you open a connection to the Autonomous Database, that session is assigned a consumer group. But consumer groups affect the concurrency and the DOP (degree of parallelism). HIGH service is run in parallel while LOW service runs in serial. So for example, if you have a PL/SQL procedure or function that has to execute statements in the same session with changing consumer groups, the way is to use the new CS_SESSION.SERVICE_NAME procedure.

The number of concurrent statements run in the database depends on 2 factors: the type of the service name and the numbers of the Oracle CPUs provisioned for the ADB:

The new package CS_SESSION contains only one procedure: SERVICE_NAME. My current version is 19.14, I am not sure if the package/procedure is included in all lower RUs. Most likely it is.

The valid values accepted as an IN parameter are: HIGHMEDIUMLOWTP and TPURGENT.

After running the procedure, Oracle does not reset any session attributes. Anything the user set for their session before calling this procedure will continue as-is. 

The ADMIN user is granted EXECUTE privilege on CS_SESSION with GRANT OPTION. The privilege is also granted to DWROLE without the GRANT OPTION.

Here is how to change the consumer group from LOW to TPURGENT:

You might get the following error:

ORA-02097: parameter cannot be modified because specified value is invalid ORA-01031: insufficient privileges ORA-06512: at “C##CLOUD$SERVICE.CS_SESSION”, line 142

Note there is an open bug for this.

You can create an AFTER SET CONTAINER trigger if you would like to limit the values a user can set for the consumer group session. You might not want that all users can set to TPURGENT but allow them go with TP only.

2. The second new object is the DB_NOTIFICATIONS view which stores information about maintenance status notifications and timezone version upgrade notifications for the ADB instance. Let us describe the view

and check what is in it:

As we can see there was a patch run on the data dictionary and there is another maintenance scheduled for the 19th of January.

3. Good to know that we can now use GitHub Raw URLs with DBMS_CLOUD APIs to access source files that reside on a GitHub Repository.

4. Also, the DBMS_PIPE package is now available in the Autonomous Database.

Moving Autonomous Databases across regions

In Autonomous, DBA, OCI, Oracle database, Replication on January 3, 2022 at 13:26

With the new OCI regions, we might want to move our databases to a closer location – in my case moving my databases from Frankfurt to Stockholm.

First what comes to mind is to enable Autonomous Data Guard and then switch over. However, you need a paired region – we cannot create a standby database just anywhere:

The list of Autonomous Data Guard Paired Regions shows that for each Source Region, we have 1-4 Paired Regions.

You need to be subscribed to a region before it can appear on the list and use it. And note: once you subscribe, there is no unsubscribe! You will need to apply for a limit increase.

I am told that soon, once a good standing payment history has been established, you will be eligible for unlimited regions. 

Another option is simply to create a clone:

Note that if you are using a clone from a backup, you cannot have the clone in another region, no idea why not! As you can see from the screenshot below, I am not getting a drop down list of regions:

So, let us create the database clone in Stockholm from the current AEG database running in Frankfurt:

Once the database is cloned, you can optionally terminate the copy in Frankfurt. But do not do it before you have verified the new clone as you might get an (unknown) error, something like this:

In case you do not want to deal with support, just create a new database and move the data with Data Pump.

My home region is Germany Central (Frankfurt). So am I able to change now my home region to Sweden Central (Stockholm) instead of Germany Central (Frankfurt)? Alas, this is not possible. Not yet at least.

According to the Metalink document Change Home Region in OCI console (Doc ID 2389905.1), the home region of the tenancy is fixed at creation time and cannot be moved. If you still wish to have the region changed, the only way to get it done would be to re-create the tenancy. That would mean removal of the current tenancy with all its resources and creating a new one.

Having the primary database in one region and a standby database in another is good practice in terms of DR. Even more complex scenarios are available. How about having a sharded Oracle Database spread among OCI, AWS and Azure? Possible but I would avoid such a complexity.

Operating System access from within the Autonomous Database

In Autonomous, DBA, Oracle database, OS on December 1, 2021 at 09:47

Oracle Autonomous Database does not let us access the operating system. Not even DBA access is allowed.

So, how can we view the content of ADB log or trace files from the OS? How about the alert.log file? “Not needed as all is autonomous” is the common answer. But that is not good enough for most DBAs.

Since September 2021, SQL Trace is supported in the Autonomous Database. If DBAs enable SQL Trace, the same tracing information saved to the trace file on Cloud Object Store is available in the SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE view in the session where the tracing was enabled.

When you enable SQL Tracing, the same trace information that is saved to the trace file on Cloud Object Store is available in the SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE view in the session where the tracing was enabled.

But how about other trace files? It is still possible via Oracle’s internal views. In fact, we don’t have access directly to the V_$ views but rather to their V$ synonyms.

Full access is available to V$DIAG_OPT_TRACE_RECORDS, V$DIAG_SQL_TRACE_RECORDS, V$DIAG_SESS_SQL_TRACE_RECORDS and V$DIAG_SESS_OPT_TRACE_RECORDS.

The names of the trace files and their content is visible through V$DIAG_TRACE_FILE_CONTENTS:

We can see the contents of a a given trace file, say eqp12pod2_p009_193404.trc. The file has 253 lines, so here is a screenshot from the top of the file content:

We can view the latest trace files generated by the database from V$DIAG_TRACE_FILE:

Here are a couple of blog post and articles related to the topic:

How about the alert.log file? The content is in X$DBGALERTEXT:

select to_char(ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP,'YYYYMMDD-HH24:MI:SS'), MESSAGE_TEXT
from X$DBGALERTEXT
order by RECORD_ID;

However, in ADB, we do not have access to X$DBGALERTEXT. Good news is that we have access to V$DIAG_ALERT_EXT which shows the contents of the XML-based alert log in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) for the current container (PDB). V$DIAG_ALERT_EXT which came in 12.2 is sort of a subset of X$DBGALERTEXT. Here is how you can search for ORA- errors. Use:

SELECT ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP, MESSAGE_LEVEL, MESSAGE_TEXT, PROBLEM_KEY
FROM V$DIAG_ALERT_EXT
WHERE MESSAGE_TEXT LIKE '%ORA-%' AND ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP > sysdate-7
ORDER BY ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP DESC;

to find the ORA- errors during the past week.

Possible level message values are:

1: CRITICAL: critical errors
2: SEVERE: severe errors
8: IMPORTANT: important message
16: NORMAL: normal message

And here is how to see the top of the alert.log file content from the last 24 hours:

SELECT to_char(ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP,'DD.MM.YYYY-HH24:MI:SS')||': '||MESSAGE_TEXT as "alert.log"
FROM V$DIAG_ALERT_EXT
WHERE ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP > sysdate-1
ORDER BY ORIGINATING_TIMESTAMP DESC;

Regardless of the fact that we do not have server OS access, we can still create directories from within the Autonomous Database.

CREATE DIRECTORY creates the database directory object and also creates the file system directory if it does not already exist. If the file system directory exists then CREATE DIRECTORY only creates the database directory object.

It is possible also to create subdirectories. For example, the following command creates the database directory object version_patches and the file system directory version/patches:

CREATE DIRECTORY version_patches AS 'version/patches;

You can list the contents of a directory in the Autonomous Database by using the function DBMS_CLOUD.LIST_FILES.

The following query lists the contents of the VERSION directory:

SELECT * FROM DBMS_CLOUD.LIST_FILES('VERSION');

You can copy Files Between Object Store and a Directory in Autonomous Database.

Starting with Oracle Database 21c, Data Pump can perform exports from Oracle Autonomous Database into dump files in a cloud object store.

Thus, now we can easily migrate data out from an Oracle Autonomous Database and import it into another location.

Here is an example assuming that we have already created the credential_name JMD_OBJ_STORE_CRED:

Details on how to create the credentials can be found in the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure User Guide which has “only” 5952 pages!

Beware Bug 33323028 – DATA PUMP EXPORT TO OCI OBJECT STORAGE FAILS – present even in 21.4 – Object store ODM Library is not enabled by default – How To Setup And Use DBMS_CLOUD Package (Doc ID 2748362.1)

Conclusion: as you can see the OS access is close to zero. There are very few views that let us see what is residing on the the operating system. What I like most is (1) the possibility to run SQL Trace, (2) being able to view the contents of the XML-based alert log and (3) the ability to run an export directly from object store (21c and above). I would like to see access to X$DBGALERTEXT.

Simple Oracle Document Access (SODA) in the Autonomous JSON Database

In Autonomous, DBA, OCI, Oracle database on November 12, 2021 at 12:09

“I ordered a soda – caffeine-free, low sodium, no artificial flavors. They brought me a glass of water.” – Robert E. Murray

SODA is a set of NoSQL-style APIs that let you create and store collections of documents in Oracle Database, retrieve them, and query them, without needing to know Structured Query Language (SQL) or how the data in the documents is stored in the database.

Oracle database stores, manages, and indexes JSON documents, and developers can access these via document-oriented APIs in a NoSQL style.

A recent white paper written by Vlad Kamys, Francesc Mas and Sai Penumuru explained how to modernize your applications and increase business resilience and security with JSON on Oracle Database, and new cloud-based Oracle Autonomous JSON Database.

Here are few examples on how to use JSON and SODA in the Oracle Autonomous Database.

From the Tools tab, start “Database Actions”, and then select “SQL”:

The following below are typical SODA commands:

(1) list the collections

(2) create the EMP collection

(5), (6) and (7) insert three JSON documents into the collection

(10) gets all documents where the name is “Francesc”

(11) gets all documents where the salary is greater than 300

(12) gets all documents where the jobs starts with “D”

(13) gets all documents where the jobs contains the string “play”

Here is the output from command extracting all documents where the jobs starts with “D”:

If we do not have a text index on “job”, then we get an ORA-40467:

We can also run standard SQL on the EMP table which gets created as a result of creating the collection:

Here is how to get the output from EMP by using JSON_VALUE:

You can think of SODA as a programming bridge between the NoSQL model and the relational model.

There is also the DBMS_SODA package in the database. You can drop the EMP collection simply with “soda drop emp” but you can also run select DBMS_SODA.DROP_COLLECTION(’emp’) from dual; The function will return 1 when it succeeds and 0 when it fails.

Work with JSON Documents in Autonomous Database provides examples of how Java code opens a SODA collection of cart documents, how to use SQL with a SODA collection, etc.

Finally, there is JSON DB/SODA DB Health-Check Script that is a tool developed by Oracle Support Services. The tool, also known as jsonsodadb_hc, is used to check the environment in which a single SQL statement runs, checking for the current status of JSON DB and SODA DB components, makes recommendations based on current settings and checks if the components are being used.

Session settings and timeouts in OCI

In Cloud, DBA, OCI on October 26, 2021 at 14:41

The following question in the Oracle Groundbreakers Developer Community forum made me investigate on how to change the session timeout in the Oracle Cloud console. Have a look, it is still for some reason unanswered:

For those who use Oracle Cloud Infrastructure on daily basis, they know that the default session timeout is 480 minutes although in my case it is an hour – so often after you switch to the OCI tab, you see the following screen:

Here is the way how you can change it to a longer period with 32767 minutes being the maximum allowed.

Step 1: Open the Service User Console

Step 2: Open the Identity Cloud Service Admin Console:

Step 3: From the Dashboard, choose “Settings” and from there “Session Settings”:

Step 4: Set the “Session Duration” to a longer period of time:

Step 5: Saving the settings to the new value: I chose the maximum which is 32767 minutes:

Here are some additional resources:

Administering Oracle Identity Cloud Service

How to Change the Default Session Timeout Value for IDCS (Oracle Identity Cloud Service) in a P6 Cloud Environment (Doc ID 2812372.1)

Note that there are other setting besides session session: user settings, default settings and partner settings.

You can try also the Console Settings (thanks to Simo Vilmunen) but there I am getting a show stopper:

SQL Trace and X-ADG in the Oracle Autonomous Database

In Autonomous, DBA, OCI, Oracle database, Replication on October 6, 2021 at 09:12

Two very different in nature but equality useful features are now available in the Oracle Autonomous Database:

  1. SQL Tracing in Autonomous Database
  2. Cross-Region Autonomous Data Guard in ADB-S

Here is how to enable and use them:

SQL Trace in ADB:

You need first a standard bucket as SQL tracing files are only supported with buckets created in the standard storage tier. Also, create a token (you can have at most 2 tokens) and do not use your OCI password when creating the credentials.

Next, you have to create a credential for your Cloud Object Storage account. Note the full username below – do not simply use the one with what you login to the console.

BEGIN
  DBMS_CLOUD.CREATE_CREDENTIAL(
    credential_name => 'JULIANDON_CREDENTIAL',
    username => 'oracleidentitycloudservice/juliandon@yahoo.com', 
    password => 'generated_token'
);
END;
/

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Afterwards, set the init.ora parameters DEFAULT_LOGGING_BUCKET to specify the Cloud Object Storage URL for a bucket for SQL trace files:

SET DEFINE OFF;
ALTER DATABASE PROPERTY SET 
   DEFAULT_LOGGING_BUCKET = 'https://objectstorage.eu-frankfurt-1.oraclecloud.com/n/juliandon/b/adbkofa/o/';

Database altered.

Next, specify the credentials to access the Cloud Object Storage. Note that although I am doing this as the ADMIN user, I still have to prefix the credential with ADMIN. Otherwise, you get an error message.

ALTER DATABASE PROPERTY SET DEFAULT_CREDENTIAL = 'ADMIN.JULIANDON_CREDENTIAL';

Database altered.

Before we can enable SQL trace, we configure the database to save SQL Trace files:

exec DBMS_SESSION.SET_IDENTIFIER('sqltrace_jd');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

exec DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO.SET_MODULE('module_jmd', null);

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE;

After running the SQLs, disable SQL tracing so that the collected data for the session is written to a table in your session and to a trace file in the bucket you configured when you set up SQL trace.

ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = FALSE;
ALTER DATABASE PROPERTY SET DEFAULT_LOGGING_BUCKET = '';

The SQL Trace facility writes the trace data collected in the session to Cloud Object Store in the following format:

default_logging_bucket/sqltrace/clientID/moduleName/sqltrace_numID1_numID2.trc

When you enable SQL Tracing, the same trace information that is saved to the trace file on Cloud Object Store is available in the SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE view in the session where the tracing was enabled.

SELECT trace FROM SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE ORDER BY row_number;

After you close the session, the data is no longer available in SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE.

DESC SESSION_CLOUD_TRACE

Name       Null? Type
---------- ----- ------------------------------
ROW_NUMBER       NUMBER
TRACE            VARCHAR2(32767)

Check Connor McDonald’s blog entitled SQL trace on your cloud database.

Cross-Region Autonomous Data Guard in ADB-S

Autonomous Data Guard provides a standby database instance in a different availability domain in the same region or in a standby database instance in different region.

If you create the standby database in the current/local region and if the primary instance becomes unavailable – the Autonomous Database automatically switches the role of the standby database to primary and begins recreating a new standby database.

ADB currently supports up to 2 standby databases – a local one in the same-region and an additional one which is remote – called cross-region.

So, with the new cross-region standby database, you can perform a manual failover to the standby database if the current region goes down.

A detailed blog by Nilay Panchal entitled Cross-Region Autonomous Data Guard – Your complete Autonomous Database disaster recovery solution! covers in detail how to create the remote standby database and how to manually switch over.

Note that each region has one or a few nearby paired regions in which a remote standby may be created. As you can see from the screenshot above my tenancy in Frankfurt is subscribed to 3 remote regions in which I can create a remote standby.

It is important to know that ADB-S does not allow us access to the standby databases but after a switchover or failover, the database wallet downloaded in the primary database region can be used in the remote region.

It is extremely simple to manually switchover to the other region – in my case from Frankfurt to Zurich, just with a click of a button:

Simple and elegant!

The Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Mobile App

In Autonomous, DBA, OCI on September 1, 2021 at 06:46

Being on summer vacation without my laptop, I still have access to my OCI tenancy via the mobile app by simply using my phone.

The OCI mobile app is available for both Apple iOS and Android. With the app, we can check the resources and view alarms, billing, days elapsed and limits.

First, you have to download the app – search for “Oracle Cloud Infrastructure”:

After you login in to the mobile app, you get the following screen from where you can either modify the settings of your profile or/and view your resources, billing status, alarms and limits:

Indeed, we cannot do much besides viewing some of your resources and billing charges (you cannot drill down). And for now, I can see only my ADW and ATP databases, not AJD or APEX.

But, at least I can check if my databases were stopped before I left for vacation:

For faster sign-in to the mobile app, you can enable automatic sign-in. Automatic sign-in uses an API key to authenticate you when you access the app, keeping you signed in until you sign out. Each user has a limit of 3 API keys. If your account has reached this limit, you can’t use this feature in the mobile app until you delete one of the existing API keys. You can use the Console to delete API signing keys. My virtual private vault count is zero – so I could not enable automatic sign-in:

It is also possible to switch the regions (my default is Frankfurt as you can see from above) and you can set the mobile app to use UTC time or local time.

Life, Grace and Rollover time of passwords in the Oracle Database

In DBA, Oracle database, Security and auditing on August 6, 2021 at 10:26

The latest Release Update of Oracle Database 19c, namely 19.12, comes with two new features: Oracle memory speed support for PMEM devices and gradual database password rollover for applications. The gradual database password rollover is backported from Oracle 21c.

I still remember very well the times when changing the password of a databases schema/user required shutting down both the database and the application and this practice has not really changed much until now. You can change database credentials without downtime thanks to proxy users:

Password rolling change before Oracle 21c

With the latest RU of 19c, there is a way to do this online. And of course also with 21c.

Now, there is a password rollover time period when the user can log in using either the old password or the new password. Here is how it works.

Oracle Database 19.12 introduces a new parameter related to the already existing PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME and PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME parameters called PASSWORD_ROLLOVER_TIME.

Note the default and the minimum and maximum values for the 3 parameters above. All numbers show days.

In order to enable the feature, we have to modify first the user profile with a non-zero limit for PASSWORD_ROLLOVER_TIME. This allows the database password of the application user to be changed to a new one and at the same time the old password can be used for the time specified by the PASSWORD_ROLLOVER_TIME. During the rollover period of time defined by PASSWORD_ROLLOVER_TIME, the application user/schema can use both the old password and the new password. When the rollover time expires (that is 1a), only the new password can be used.

After a password is created for a new user or the password is being changed, then the password follows a life cycle and grace period in four phases: 1a&1b, 2, 3 an 4:

We can query DBA_USERS to find the user’s account status from the ACCOUNT_STATUS column (check the screenshot on the top of the post). It is important to point out that after the rollover period has begun, we can still change the password: with or without the REPLACE clause. The rollover start time is fixed at the time when the user changes the password. The start time is not affected by further password changes during the password rollover period. 

Here is how I could connect to the database with 2 different passwords after the initial profile re-configuration:

If needed, we can quit the rollover time period at any time with the following command:

ALTER USER JULIAN EXPIRE PASSWORD ROLLOVER PERIOD;

We cannot configure the gradual database password rollover for the following connection types:

  • Direct logins for Oracle Real Application Security users
  • Kerberos-, certificate-, or RADIUS-based externally authenticated connections
  • Centrally managed user (CMU) connections
  • Administrative connections that use external password files
  • The Oracle Data Guard connection between the primary and the standby

For more on the topic check Rodrigo Jorge’s post Gradual Database Password Rollover brings new backdoor opportunities to find out how to prevent from possible hackers when using this new feature or if interested in the internals, check Understanding internally how 21c Gradual Database Password Rollover works.

A good example on how to use the feature is given by Mouhamadou Diaw in his blog post Oracle 21c Security: Gradual Database Password Rollover

And here is something from Oracle v4:

It is OK for DBAs to make mistakes

In DBA on July 26, 2021 at 18:42

At OpenWorld 2016, one of the presentations I gave was entitled “My 13 DBA mistakes in 13 years“. Seldom I see so many smiley faces in the audience.

Earlier, in 2009 at the BGOUG, Plamen Zyumbyulev and I gave a very similar talk called “Don’t do like they do. People would make fun of you“. We were both quoting mistakes we have done while working with the databases.

In my opinion, it ok for DBAs to make mistakes – it just happens from time to time. It can happen during the day, during oncall and it happens also to the very best ones.

I have heard from some DBAs that they have never made any mistakes. May be. Who knows. But when spending years and years of database administration once in a while it is OK to press the wrong button or type the wrong command. Or the right command and press the right button but … in the wrong window 🙂

For me, the transition from DBA to Senior DBA comes at the moment when you start admitting your mistakes. I believe this is the borderline.

Here is a good collection of mistakes DBAs have made but first my top 3 ones 🙂 I mean my mistakes.

  1. New patcheset – I think 9.2.0.6 or something. I patched the RMAN catalog database running on a standalone server. So far, so good. All done. Perfect! I wanted to remove the patchset binaries afterwards. Simple rm –rf  * Then I got a phone call from the Unix admin: Julian: are you connected to ..? Cold sweat. I noticed screens were changes one after each other. Then even before typing pwd I knew I was root and I would see that single slash – live and learn. We had to reinstall the OS and recreate the RMAN catalog database.
  2. In a production database I saw a user called ABC – not too many tables, I thought it was some test schema remained from who knows what and where. Then: drop user cascade; Why didn’t I asked what that schema was and who created it and what it was used for! The answer I got (after the schema was dropped) was the worst I could expect. Like the worst of the worst. Luckily, for some reason I ran a schema export before the drop. I have never ever as DBA run an import so quickly in my life 🙂
  3. Heavily loaded 24×7 OLTP database – I got call that a filesystem was 99% full – it had only UNDO tablespace files. One of them rather huge. Something I have done so many times: recreate the UNDO online:

Only one problem: I deleted with rm the wrong UNDO file – imagine what happened – all databases which work within one business application got messed up – at least transitions were failing. I still remember the reaction of the datacenter manager when with a pale face I went to report what happened: “This is just a website Julian – no human lifes are at stake – go and fix it”. We managed to fix it without shutting the databases down but I had another DBA behind me following what I am typing. Afterwards, most of us were often watching each other when doing something important – 4 eyes are always better than 2.

What is the biggest mistake you made in production? by Tara Kizer

5 DBA Mistakes That Can Cost You Your Job by Robert Davis

Confessions of a DBA: My worst mistake by Phil Factor

Don’t Just Do Something, Stand There! Avoiding Junior DBA Mistakes by Jim Czuprynski

Top 6 MySQL DBA Mistakes by Rob Gravelle

Common Mistakes of DBA in MS SQL Server by Evgeniy Gribkov

The 3 DBA Mistakes You Don’t Know You Are Making by Thomas LaRock

And here are interesting videos to watch: Top 10 DBA Mistakes: Horror Stories!

DBAs: 20 years after

In DBA, Oracle database on June 28, 2021 at 16:37

Oracle 9i was released 20 years ago. Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) and Oracle XML DB were cool new things except for a few OPS DBAs who even stopped playing ping-pong if you know what I mean.

Now, Oracle 21c is available from the public cloud and and several other database brands are competing shoulder to shoulder with the Oracle database.

However, DBAs still go their separate own ways, just like at the end of the book “20 years after” by Alexandre Dumas.

Some are still focused mostly into on-premises database work, some are very cloud oriented and some are positioning themselves into the golden middle. Just like the Three Musketeers.

The DBA profession still stays the same: solid, desired by IT experts and for good or for bad – still arguably the most complex job in IT. Complex in both cloud and off-cloud.

In a recent study, the DBA profession is #7 in Best Technology Jobs, #19 in Best STEM Jobs and #55 in the top 100 Best Jobs:

According to the study, Database Administrators made a median salary of $93,750 in 2019. The best-paid 25 percent made $120,880 that year, while the lowest-paid 25 percent made $68,340:

As we all know, it is still not all about the money… So, let us look at the rest.

Upward Mobility, meaning opportunities for advancements and salary are “Above Average”, same is the Stress Level, meaning work environment and complexities of the job’s responsibilities. But the Flexibility which means an alternative working schedule and work life balance is rated as “Average”.

I personally think that all 3 categories above are well rated, however there is another category called Job Security which totally depends on the DBA – it cannot be generalized.

It is worth reading Tim Hall’s What Employers Want : A Series of Posts and Learning New Things : A Series of Posts.

If you would like to know what will change, what new skills are required and how to work in hybrid environment, check The Cloud and Database Administration by Craig S. Mullins.

The Next Generation of DBAs is well described in Cloud DBA: The Next Generation of Database Administrator?

A DBA should be nowadays master of at least few database brands. There are several list and websites pointing towards the top/best databases but imho every database has its use cases and clients. Here are few:

Top 15 databases to use in 2021

Top 25 Best Database Management Software in 2021

6 Best Databases To Use In 2021

Best database software in 2021

And this one is from today, June 28th, 2021: Top 30 Most Popular Database Management Software: Complete List

Let me point out at the end that the Database field is rapidly changing – cloud native databases, NewSQL, etc. so DBAs are even more and more important. The application architecture is getting more diverse because of cloud and the newly emerging databases plus the transformation of traditional databases – think of Oracle Autonomous Database for instance.

As a DBA, there is always a database you like and prefer more than another one but once you are comfortable with the work you are doing, either on-prem or in the cloud – enjoy, learn new things and look into the future remembering you have chosen one of the best professions in the world!